CprS376 Schedule
CprS376 Class 24
CprS376 Class 25 (eceval-compiler)

Explicit-Control Evaluator, eceval

Class 25, Part 1 - Section 5.4



Contents

Syntax of the Language which Was Interpreted in Section 4.1 and Will Be Compiled in Chapter 5

;; ch5-syntax.ss

;;;;SCHEME SYNTAX FROM SECTION 4.1.2 OF STRUCTURE AND INTERPRETATION OF
;;;  COMPUTER PROGRAMS, TO SUPPORT CHAPTER 5
;;;;Loaded by compiler.scm (for use by compiler), and by eceval-support.scm
;;;; (for simulation of eceval machine operations)

;;===========================================

;; Modifications by Chris Parrish are tagged <cp: comment>

;; <cp: true and false defined>

(define true #t)
(define false #f)

;; =============================

(define (self-evaluating? exp)
  (cond ((number? exp) true)
        ((string? exp) true)
        (else false)))


(define (quoted? exp)
  (tagged-list? exp 'quote))

(define (text-of-quotation exp) (cadr exp))

(define (tagged-list? exp tag)
  (if (pair? exp)
      (eq? (car exp) tag)
      false))


(define (variable? exp) (symbol? exp))

(define (assignment? exp)
  (tagged-list? exp 'set!))

(define (assignment-variable exp) (cadr exp))

(define (assignment-value exp) (caddr exp))


(define (definition? exp)
  (tagged-list? exp 'define))

(define (definition-variable exp)
  (if (symbol? (cadr exp))
      (cadr exp)
      (caadr exp)))

(define (definition-value exp)
  (if (symbol? (cadr exp))
      (caddr exp)
      (make-lambda (cdadr exp)
                   (cddr exp))))

(define (lambda? exp) (tagged-list? exp 'lambda))

(define (lambda-parameters exp) (cadr exp))
(define (lambda-body exp) (cddr exp))

(define (make-lambda parameters body)
  (cons 'lambda (cons parameters body)))

(define (if? exp) (tagged-list? exp 'if))

(define (if-predicate exp) (cadr exp))

(define (if-consequent exp) (caddr exp))

(define (if-alternative exp)
  (if (not (null? (cdddr exp)))
      (cadddr exp)
      'false))


(define (begin? exp) (tagged-list? exp 'begin))
(define (begin-actions exp) (cdr exp))

(define (last-exp? seq) (null? (cdr seq)))
(define (first-exp seq) (car seq))
(define (rest-exps seq) (cdr seq))

(define (application? exp) (pair? exp))
(define (operator exp) (car exp))
(define (operands exp) (cdr exp))

(define (no-operands? ops) (null? ops))
(define (first-operand ops) (car ops))
(define (rest-operands ops) (cdr ops))

;;;**following needed only to implement COND as derived expression,
;;; not needed by eceval machine in text.  But used by compiler

;; from 4.1.2
(define (make-if predicate consequent alternative)
  (list 'if predicate consequent alternative))


(define (sequence->exp seq)
  (cond ((null? seq) seq)
        ((last-exp? seq) (first-exp seq))
        (else (make-begin seq))))

(define (make-begin seq) (cons 'begin seq))

(define (cond? exp) (tagged-list? exp 'cond))
(define (cond-clauses exp) (cdr exp))
(define (cond-else-clause? clause)
  (eq? (cond-predicate clause) 'else))
(define (cond-predicate clause) (car clause))
(define (cond-actions clause) (cdr clause))

(define (cond->if exp)
  (expand-clauses (cond-clauses exp)))

(define (expand-clauses clauses)
  (if (null? clauses)
      'false                          ; no else clause
      (let ((first (car clauses))
            (rest (cdr clauses)))
        (if (cond-else-clause? first)
            (if (null? rest)
                (sequence->exp (cond-actions first))
                (error "ELSE clause isn't last -- COND->IF"
                       clauses))
            (make-if (cond-predicate first)
                     (sequence->exp (cond-actions first))
                     (expand-clauses rest))))))
;; end of Cond support


eceval, the Explicit Control Evaluator

;; ch5-eceval.ss

;;;;EXPLICIT-CONTROL EVALUATOR FROM SECTION 5.4 OF
;;;; STRUCTURE AND INTERPRETATION OF COMPUTER PROGRAMS

;;;;Matches code in ch5.scm

;;; To use it
;;; -- load "load-eceval.scm", which loads this file and the
;;;    support it needs (including the register-machine simulator)

;;; -- To initialize and start the machine, do

;: (define the-global-environment (setup-environment))

;: (start eceval)

;; To restart, can do just
;: (start eceval)
;;;;;;;;;;


;;**NB. To [not] monitor stack operations, comment in/[out] the line after
;; print-result in the machine controller below
;;**Also choose the desired make-stack version in regsim.scm

(define eceval-operations
  (list
   ;;primitive Scheme operations
   (list 'read read)

   ;;operations in syntax.scm
   (list 'self-evaluating? self-evaluating?)
   (list 'quoted? quoted?)
   (list 'text-of-quotation text-of-quotation)
   (list 'variable? variable?)
   (list 'assignment? assignment?)
   (list 'assignment-variable assignment-variable)
   (list 'assignment-value assignment-value)
   (list 'definition? definition?)
   (list 'definition-variable definition-variable)
   (list 'definition-value definition-value)
   (list 'lambda? lambda?)
   (list 'lambda-parameters lambda-parameters)
   (list 'lambda-body lambda-body)
   (list 'if? if?)
   (list 'if-predicate if-predicate)
   (list 'if-consequent if-consequent)
   (list 'if-alternative if-alternative)
   (list 'begin? begin?)
   (list 'begin-actions begin-actions)
   (list 'last-exp? last-exp?)
   (list 'first-exp first-exp)
   (list 'rest-exps rest-exps)
   (list 'application? application?)
   (list 'operator operator)
   (list 'operands operands)
   (list 'no-operands? no-operands?)
   (list 'first-operand first-operand)
   (list 'rest-operands rest-operands)

   ;;operations in eceval-support.scm
   (list 'true? true?)
   (list 'make-procedure make-procedure)
   (list 'compound-procedure? compound-procedure?)
   (list 'procedure-parameters procedure-parameters)
   (list 'procedure-body procedure-body)
   (list 'procedure-environment procedure-environment)
   (list 'extend-environment extend-environment)
   (list 'lookup-variable-value lookup-variable-value)
   (list 'set-variable-value! set-variable-value!)
   (list 'define-variable! define-variable!)
   (list 'primitive-procedure? primitive-procedure?)
   (list 'apply-primitive-procedure apply-primitive-procedure)
   (list 'prompt-for-input prompt-for-input)
   (list 'announce-output announce-output)
   (list 'user-print user-print)
   (list 'empty-arglist empty-arglist)
   (list 'adjoin-arg adjoin-arg)
   (list 'last-operand? last-operand?)
   (list 'no-more-exps? no-more-exps?)  ;for non-tail-recursive machine
   (list 'get-global-environment get-global-environment))
   )

(define eceval
  (make-machine
   '(exp env val proc argl continue unev)
   eceval-operations
  '(
;;SECTION 5.4.4
read-eval-print-loop
  (perform (op initialize-stack))
  (perform
   (op prompt-for-input) (const ";;; EC-Eval input:"))
  (assign exp (op read))
  (assign env (op get-global-environment))
  (assign continue (label print-result))
  (goto (label eval-dispatch))
print-result
;;**following instruction optional -- if use it, need monitored stack
  (perform (op print-stack-statistics))
  (perform
   (op announce-output) (const ";;; EC-Eval value:"))
  (perform (op user-print) (reg val))
  (goto (label read-eval-print-loop))

unknown-expression-type
  (assign val (const unknown-expression-type-error))
  (goto (label signal-error))

unknown-procedure-type
  (restore continue)
  (assign val (const unknown-procedure-type-error))
  (goto (label signal-error))

signal-error
  (perform (op user-print) (reg val))
  (goto (label read-eval-print-loop))

;;SECTION 5.4.1
eval-dispatch
  (test (op self-evaluating?) (reg exp))
  (branch (label ev-self-eval))
  (test (op variable?) (reg exp))
  (branch (label ev-variable))
  (test (op quoted?) (reg exp))
  (branch (label ev-quoted))
  (test (op assignment?) (reg exp))
  (branch (label ev-assignment))
  (test (op definition?) (reg exp))
  (branch (label ev-definition))
  (test (op if?) (reg exp))
  (branch (label ev-if))
  (test (op lambda?) (reg exp))
  (branch (label ev-lambda))
  (test (op begin?) (reg exp))
  (branch (label ev-begin))
  (test (op application?) (reg exp))
  (branch (label ev-application))
  (goto (label unknown-expression-type))

ev-self-eval
  (assign val (reg exp))
  (goto (reg continue))
ev-variable
  (assign val (op lookup-variable-value) (reg exp) (reg env))
  (goto (reg continue))
ev-quoted
  (assign val (op text-of-quotation) (reg exp))
  (goto (reg continue))
ev-lambda
  (assign unev (op lambda-parameters) (reg exp))
  (assign exp (op lambda-body) (reg exp))
  (assign val (op make-procedure)
              (reg unev) (reg exp) (reg env))
  (goto (reg continue))

ev-application
  (save continue)
  (save env)
  (assign unev (op operands) (reg exp))
  (save unev)
  (assign exp (op operator) (reg exp))
  (assign continue (label ev-appl-did-operator))
  (goto (label eval-dispatch))
ev-appl-did-operator
  (restore unev)
  (restore env)
  (assign argl (op empty-arglist))
  (assign proc (reg val))
  (test (op no-operands?) (reg unev))
  (branch (label apply-dispatch))
  (save proc)
ev-appl-operand-loop
  (save argl)
  (assign exp (op first-operand) (reg unev))
  (test (op last-operand?) (reg unev))
  (branch (label ev-appl-last-arg))
  (save env)
  (save unev)
  (assign continue (label ev-appl-accumulate-arg))
  (goto (label eval-dispatch))
ev-appl-accumulate-arg
  (restore unev)
  (restore env)
  (restore argl)
  (assign argl (op adjoin-arg) (reg val) (reg argl))
  (assign unev (op rest-operands) (reg unev))
  (goto (label ev-appl-operand-loop))
ev-appl-last-arg
  (assign continue (label ev-appl-accum-last-arg))
  (goto (label eval-dispatch))
ev-appl-accum-last-arg
  (restore argl)
  (assign argl (op adjoin-arg) (reg val) (reg argl))
  (restore proc)
  (goto (label apply-dispatch))
apply-dispatch
  (test (op primitive-procedure?) (reg proc))
  (branch (label primitive-apply))
  (test (op compound-procedure?) (reg proc))  
  (branch (label compound-apply))
  (goto (label unknown-procedure-type))

primitive-apply
  (assign val (op apply-primitive-procedure)
              (reg proc)
              (reg argl))
  (restore continue)
  (goto (reg continue))

compound-apply
  (assign unev (op procedure-parameters) (reg proc))
  (assign env (op procedure-environment) (reg proc))
  (assign env (op extend-environment)
              (reg unev) (reg argl) (reg env))
  (assign unev (op procedure-body) (reg proc))
  (goto (label ev-sequence))

;;;SECTION 5.4.2
ev-begin
  (assign unev (op begin-actions) (reg exp))
  (save continue)
  (goto (label ev-sequence))

ev-sequence
  (assign exp (op first-exp) (reg unev))
  (test (op last-exp?) (reg unev))
  (branch (label ev-sequence-last-exp))
  (save unev)
  (save env)
  (assign continue (label ev-sequence-continue))
  (goto (label eval-dispatch))
ev-sequence-continue
  (restore env)
  (restore unev)
  (assign unev (op rest-exps) (reg unev))
  (goto (label ev-sequence))
ev-sequence-last-exp
  (restore continue)
  (goto (label eval-dispatch))

;;;SECTION 5.4.3

ev-if
  (save exp)
  (save env)
  (save continue)
  (assign continue (label ev-if-decide))
  (assign exp (op if-predicate) (reg exp))
  (goto (label eval-dispatch))
ev-if-decide
  (restore continue)
  (restore env)
  (restore exp)
  (test (op true?) (reg val))
  (branch (label ev-if-consequent))
ev-if-alternative
  (assign exp (op if-alternative) (reg exp))
  (goto (label eval-dispatch))
ev-if-consequent
  (assign exp (op if-consequent) (reg exp))
  (goto (label eval-dispatch))

ev-assignment
  (assign unev (op assignment-variable) (reg exp))
  (save unev)
  (assign exp (op assignment-value) (reg exp))
  (save env)
  (save continue)
  (assign continue (label ev-assignment-1))
  (goto (label eval-dispatch))
ev-assignment-1
  (restore continue)
  (restore env)
  (restore unev)
  (perform
   (op set-variable-value!) (reg unev) (reg val) (reg env))
  (assign val (const ok))
  (goto (reg continue))

ev-definition
  (assign unev (op definition-variable) (reg exp))
  (save unev)
  (assign exp (op definition-value) (reg exp))
  (save env)
  (save continue)
  (assign continue (label ev-definition-1))
  (goto (label eval-dispatch))
ev-definition-1
  (restore continue)
  (restore env)
  (restore unev)
  (perform
   (op define-variable!) (reg unev) (reg val) (reg env))
  (assign val (const ok))
  (goto (reg continue))
   )))

'(EXPLICIT CONTROL EVALUATOR LOADED)

eceval Support

;; ch5-eceval-support.ss

;;;;SIMULATION OF ECEVAL MACHINE OPERATIONS --
;;;;loaded by load-eceval.scm and by load-eceval-compiler.scm

;;;;FIRST A LOT FROM 4.1.2-4.1.4

; (load "ch5-syntax.scm");               ;section 4.1.2 syntax procedures

;;===========================================

;; Modifications by Chris Parrish are tagged <cp: comment>

;; <cp: true and false defined>

(define true #t)
(define false #f)

;; =============================

;; load ch5-syntax

(load "ch5-syntax.ss")

;; =============================


;;;SECTION 4.1.3
;;; operations used by compiled code and eceval except as noted

(define (true? x)
  (not (eq? x false)))

;;* not used by eceval itself -- used by compiled code when that
;; is run in the eceval machine
(define (false? x)
  (eq? x false))

;;following compound-procedure operations not used by compiled code
(define (make-procedure parameters body env)
  (list 'procedure parameters body env))

(define (compound-procedure? p)
  (tagged-list? p 'procedure))

(define (procedure-parameters p) (cadr p))
(define (procedure-body p) (caddr p))
(define (procedure-environment p) (cadddr p))
;;(end of compound procedures)


(define (enclosing-environment env) (cdr env))

(define (first-frame env) (car env))

(define the-empty-environment '())

(define (make-frame variables values)
  (cons variables values))

(define (frame-variables frame) (car frame))
(define (frame-values frame) (cdr frame))

(define (add-binding-to-frame! var val frame)
  (set-car! frame (cons var (car frame)))
  (set-cdr! frame (cons val (cdr frame))))

(define (extend-environment vars vals base-env)
  (if (= (length vars) (length vals))
      (cons (make-frame vars vals) base-env)
      (if (< (length vars) (length vals))
          (error "Too many arguments supplied" vars vals)
          (error "Too few arguments supplied" vars vals))))


(define (lookup-variable-value var env)
  (define (env-loop env)
    (define (scan vars vals)
      (cond ((null? vars)
             (env-loop (enclosing-environment env)))
            ((eq? var (car vars))
             (car vals))
            (else (scan (cdr vars) (cdr vals)))))
    (if (eq? env the-empty-environment)
        (error "Unbound variable" var)
        (let ((frame (first-frame env)))
          (scan (frame-variables frame)
                (frame-values frame)))))
  (env-loop env))

(define (set-variable-value! var val env)
  (define (env-loop env)
    (define (scan vars vals)
      (cond ((null? vars)
             (env-loop (enclosing-environment env)))
            ((eq? var (car vars))
             (set-car! vals val))
            (else (scan (cdr vars) (cdr vals)))))
    (if (eq? env the-empty-environment)
        (error "Unbound variable -- SET!" var)
        (let ((frame (first-frame env)))
          (scan (frame-variables frame)
                (frame-values frame)))))
  (env-loop env))

(define (define-variable! var val env)
  (let ((frame (first-frame env)))
    (define (scan vars vals)
      (cond ((null? vars)
             (add-binding-to-frame! var val frame))
            ((eq? var (car vars))
             (set-car! vals val))
            (else (scan (cdr vars) (cdr vals)))))
    (scan (frame-variables frame)
          (frame-values frame))))


;;;SECTION 4.1.4

(define (setup-environment)
  (let ((initial-env
         (extend-environment (primitive-procedure-names)
                             (primitive-procedure-objects)
                             the-empty-environment)))
    (define-variable! 'true true initial-env)
    (define-variable! 'false false initial-env)
    initial-env))

(define (primitive-procedure? proc)
  (tagged-list? proc 'primitive))

(define (primitive-implementation proc) (cadr proc))

(define primitive-procedures
  (list (list 'car car)
        (list 'cdr cdr)
        (list 'cons cons)
        (list 'null? null?)
        ;;above from book -- here are some more
        (list '+ +)
        (list '- -)
        (list '* *)
        (list '= =)
        (list '/ /)
        (list '> >)
        (list '< <)
        ))

(define (primitive-procedure-names)
  (map car
       primitive-procedures))

(define (primitive-procedure-objects)
  (map (lambda (proc) (list 'primitive (cadr proc)))
       primitive-procedures))

(define apply-in-underlying-scheme apply)

(define (apply-primitive-procedure proc args)
  (apply-in-underlying-scheme
   (primitive-implementation proc) args))


(define (prompt-for-input string)
  (newline) (newline) (display string) (newline))

(define (announce-output string)
  (newline) (display string) (newline))

(define (user-print object)
  (if (compound-procedure? object)
      (display (list 'compound-procedure
                     (procedure-parameters object)
                     (procedure-body object)
                     '))
      (display object)))


;;; Simulation of new machine operations needed by
;;;  eceval machine (not used by compiled code)

;;; From section 5.4.1 footnote
(define (empty-arglist) '())
(define (adjoin-arg arg arglist)
  (append arglist (list arg)))
(define (last-operand? ops)
  (null? (cdr ops)))

;;; From section 5.4.2 footnote, for non-tail-recursive sequences
(define (no-more-exps? seq) (null? seq))

;;; From section 5.4.4 footnote
(define (get-global-environment)
  the-global-environment)
;; will do following when ready to run, not when load this file
;;(define the-global-environment (setup-environment))


;;; Simulation of new machine operations needed for compiled code
;;;  and eceval/compiler interface (not used by plain eceval machine)
;;; From section 5.5.2 footnote
(define (make-compiled-procedure entry env)
  (list 'compiled-procedure entry env))
(define (compiled-procedure? proc)
  (tagged-list? proc 'compiled-procedure))
(define (compiled-procedure-entry c-proc) (cadr c-proc))
(define (compiled-procedure-env c-proc) (caddr c-proc))

Load eceval

;; load-eceval.ss

;;;; LOADS THE EXPLICIT-CONTROL EVALUATOR FROM SECTION 5.4 OF
;;;; STRUCTURE AND INTERPRETATION OF COMPUTER PROGRAMS, WITH
;;;; ALL THE SUPPORTING CODE IT NEEDS IN ORDER TO RUN.

;;;; **NB** The actual "load" calls are implementation dependent.

; (load "ch5-regsim")                     ;reg machine simulator

;; **NB** next file contains another "load"
; (load "ch5-eceval-support")             ;simulation of machine operations

; (load "ch5-eceval")                     ;eceval itself


;; =============================

;; Modifications by Chris Parrish are tagged <cp: comment>

;; <cp: load eceval>

(load "ch5-regsim.ss")
(load "ch5-eceval-support.ss")
(load "ch5-eceval.ss")

;; =============================

eceval Transcript

;; ch5-eceval.transcript

;; =============================

;; load eceval

(load "load-eceval.ss")

;; =============================

;; test eceval

(define the-global-environment (setup-environment))

(start eceval)

(define (append x y)
  (if (null? x)
      y
      (cons (car x)
            (append (cdr x) y))))

(append '(a b c) '(d e f))

(define (factorial n)
  (if (= n 1)
      1
      (* (factorial (- n 1)) n)))

(factorial 5)

(define (factorial n)
  (define (iter product counter)
    (if (> counter n)
        product
        (iter (* counter product)
              (+ counter 1))))
  (iter 1 1))

(factorial 6)

(define (fib n)
  (if (< n 2)
      n
      (+ (fib (- n 1)) (fib (- n 2)))))

(fib 7)

; bye  -- does not work yet

SICP Source Code

Programming Exercises

In class today we will continue our work on the following exercises from chapter 5: 4, 6, 7, 15, 16, 21, 23, 26, 27, 28, 48.