Landon in a Landslide
a case-control study comparing lung cancer patients with matched controls
the first randomized clinical trial investigated the role of streptomycin in treating tuberculosis
[Austin Bradford Hill] served as a pilot in the First World War but was invalided out when he contracted tuberculosis. Two years in hospital and two years of convalescence put a medical qualification out of the question and he took a degree in economics by correspondence at London University.
He [Jonas Salk] was later approached by the director of research at the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis and asked whether he would like to participate in the foundation's polio project which had earlier been established by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, at the time thought to be a victim of polio himself. Salk quickly accepted the offer, saying he "would be happy to work on this important project."
... to determine whether low-dose aspirin (325 mg every other day) decreases cardiovascular mortality
The WHI is the first randomized trial to directly address whether estrogen plus progestin has a favorable or unfavorable effect on CHD incidence and on overall risks and benefits in predominantly healthy women.
... one of the largest U.S. prevention studies of its kind, with a budget of $625 million. A 2014 analysis calculated a net economic return on investment of $37.1 billion for the estrogen-plus-progestin arm of the study's hormone trial alone, providing a strong case for the continued use of this variety of large, publicly funded population study.
Medical research is subject to ethical standards that promote and ensure respect for all human subjects and protect their health and rights. While the primary purpose of medical research is to generate new knowledge, this goal can never take precedence over the rights and interests of individual research subjects.
The United States government did something that was wrong -- deeply, profoundly, morally wrong. It was an outrage to our commitment to integrity and equality for all our citizens. ... We face a challenge in our time. Science and technology are rapidly changing our lives with the promise of making us much healthier, much more productive and more prosperous. But with these changes we must work harder to see that as we advance we don't leave behind our conscience. No ground is gained and, indeed, much is lost if we lose our moral bearings in the name of progress.
the rise in average world land temperature ... is approximately 1.5 degrees C in the past 250 years, and about 0.9 degrees in the past 50 years.
Extensive pollution is not surprising since particulate matter can remain airborne for days to weeks and travel thousands of kilometers.
Eleven million people were uprooted by violence last year , most propelled by conflict in Syria, Iraq, Ukraine and Afghanistan. Conflict and extreme poverty have also pushed tens of thousands out of parts of sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia.
As of Tuesday [Sep. 2, 2015], according to the National Interagency Fire Center, more than 8 million acres have burned in U.S. wildfires in 2015 ... 8,202,557 of them, to be precise. That's an area larger than the state of Maryland.
Women now outnumber men on American college campuses, and more women are studying and working in what were traditionally considered "men's careers." Yet men still out-earn women at every education level, and it may have something to do with the careers that women and men choose.
The global price of a barrel of oil remains near its lowest point since the depths of the 2009 recession ... a result of a supply glut and battle for market share between the OPEC oil cartel and the United States, which has shifted toward the role of global swing producer.
The fracking frenzy in North Dakota has boosted the U.S. fuel supply ... but at what cost?
In some countries, particularly Syria, which once had one of the world's highest literacy rates, many children who ordinarily would be third or fourth graders by now have rarely if ever been inside a classroom.
Interest in and use of article-level metrics (ALMs) has grown rapidly amongst the research community, by researchers, publishers, funders, and research institutions. As this happens, it is critical to ensure secure and reliable data that is trustworthy and can be used by all.
Ebola changed [Belgian scientist Peter] Piot's life ... following the discovery of the virus, he went on to research the Aids epidemic in Africa and became the founding executive director of the UNAIDS organisation. "It led me to do things I thought only happened in books. It gave me a mission in life to work on health in developing countries," he says. "It was not only the discovery of a virus but also of myself." Peter Piot, the discoverer of Ebola, is now the Director of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.
What if it could be easier and safer for everyone to get around?
For some causes of more than 100 000 deaths per year in 2013, age-standardised death rates increased between 1990 and 2013, including HIV/AIDS, pancreatic cancer, atrial fibrillation and flutter, drug use disorders, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and sickle-cell anaemias. Diarrhoeal diseases, lower respiratory infections, neonatal causes, and malaria are still in the top five causes of death in children younger than 5 years. The most important pathogens are rotavirus for diarrhoea and pneumococcus for lower respiratory infections.
Economists Roberto Rigobon and Alberto Cavallo at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Sloan School of Management have come up with a method to scour the Internet for online prices on millions of items and then use them to calculate inflation statistics for a dozen countries on a daily basis.
There are good pollsters and good polling organizations out there, and a lot of smart and conscientious people in the profession. But no one, frankly, came close to Andy -- and no organization even begins to rival the Pew Research Center he built.
On average, college graduates earn $1 million more over their lifetimes than high school graduates.
[The Global Competitiveness Report, 2015-2016] ranks the U.S. third in global competitiveness, behind Switzerland and Singapore. Next is Germany, the Netherlands, Japan, Hong Kong, Finland, Sweden, the UK and then Canada.
Perhaps the biggest shortcoming [in US weather forecasting] is in data assimilation ... the process of taking all of the available data and building an initial description of the atmosphere. The model runs from that, but a perfect model of the wrong atmosphere will yield a wrong answer.
The Blanchard era at the IMF was one of unprecedented data-driven analysis of policy problems, done with consummate skill.
Despite growing attention to cleaner energy, two-thirds of the world's electricity is still produced by burning fossil fuels, mostly coal - a proportion that hasn't budged for 35 years. ... Coal-burning power plants are the biggest polluters, [with] 72% of all fossil fuel emissions ... China, the United States and India ... accounted for nearly 50 percent of all fossil fuel emissions.
... collectively, our national drinking habit costs society $249 billion a year. That cost comes primarily from excessive drinking -- bingeing on four or more drinks per evening, or drinking heavily all week long. That total cost manifests itself primarily in things like early mortality due to alcohol ($75 billion of the total), lost productivity and absenteeism at work ($82 billion), health-care costs ($28 billion), crime ($25 billion) and car crashes ($13 billion).
Hurricane Katrina was the United States's most costly and destructive weather disaster in recent history.
Who still doesn't have health insurance? They tend to live in the South, and they tend to be poor.
50,000 runners, moving in waves
This paper documents a marked increase in the all-cause mortality of middle-aged white non-Hispanic men and women in the United States between 1999 and 2013. This change reversed decades of progress in mortality and was unique to the United States; no other rich country saw a similar turnaround. ... This increase for whites was largely accounted for by increasing death rates from drug and alcohol poisonings, suicide, and chronic liver diseases and cirrhosis.
By the end of 2015, the economy -- still leaving too many Americans behind -- has regrettably almost disappeared from the news ... Here, for better or worse, is the state of the union in 10 charts.
Air Pollution kills more people worldwide each year than does AIDS, malaria, diabetes or tuberculosis. For the United States and Europe, air pollution is equivalent in detrimental health effects to smoking 0.4 to 1.6 cigarettes per day. In China the numbers are far worse; on bad days the health effects of air pollution are comparable to the harm done smoking three packs per day (60 cigarettes) by every man, woman, and child. Air pollution is arguably the greatest environmental catastrophe in the world today.
Sunni-led allies of Saudi Arabia have cut diplomatic ties with Shiite Iran, further polarizing the Middle East along the two major branches of Islam. But while almost all of the governments are controlled by one sect, the countries' populations are a mix of Sunnis and Shiites, including sub-sects and other branches, an important factor in the region's conflicts.