Statistics 204

Elementary Statistics



Part 2: Surveys, Observational Studies, and Experiments Classwork

Surveys

Observational studies

Experiments

Medical Ethics

Modern Statistics


Syria, New York Times

  • global refugee crisis, New York Times
  • migrants and asylum, BBC
  • destinations, New York Times
  • EU migration maps and charts, BBC
  • EU migration maps and charts, UNHCR
  • scale of migrant crisis, New York Times
  • major refugee crises around the world, 1940-2015, Washington Post
  • refugees in the US, Washington Post
  • statement by Pope Francis, Washington Post
  • Stat 204 barplot
    Eleven million people were uprooted by violence last year [2014], most propelled by conflict in Syria, Iraq, Ukraine and Afghanistan. Conflict and extreme poverty have also pushed tens of thousands out of parts of sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia.

    Wildfires, New York Times

  • US wildfires, New York Times
  • US wildfire data, 1983-2014, National Interagency Fire Center
  • active fire map, USDA Forest Service
  • Stat 204 analysis
    As of Tuesday [Sep. 2, 2015], according to the National Interagency Fire Center, more than 8 million acres have burned in U.S. wildfires in 2015 ... 8,202,557 of them, to be precise. That's an area larger than the state of Maryland.

    Earnings, college major, and gender, Washington Post

  • lucrative majors, Washington Post
  • high-earning majors, Washington Post
  • college and the gender wage gap, Catherine Rampell, Washington Post
  • college grades and future earnings, Catherine Rampell, Washington Post
    Women now outnumber men on American college campuses, and more women are studying and working in what were traditionally considered "men's careers." Yet men still out-earn women at every education level, and it may have something to do with the careers that women and men choose.

    world oil production and prices, New York Times

  • world oil production and prices, New York Times
    The global price of a barrel of oil remains near its lowest point since the depths of the 2009 recession ... a result of a supply glut and battle for market share between the OPEC oil cartel and the United States, which has shifted toward the role of global swing producer.

    Bakken shale oil, National Geographic

  • Bakken shale oil, National Geographic
  • methane, National Geographic
  • hydraulic fracturing, Wikipedia
  • hydraulic fracturing in the United_States, Wikipedia
  • environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing in the United States, Wikipedia
  • Bakken formation, Wikipedia
  • North Dakota oil production, StarTribune, Minnesota
  • Bakken shale oil region viewed from space at night, Washington Post
    The fracking frenzy in North Dakota has boosted the U.S. fuel supply ... but at what cost?

    challenge of education, UNHCR

  • the challenge of education, UNHCR
  • children out of school, NYTimes
    In some countries, particularly Syria, which once had one of the world's highest literacy rates, many children who ordinarily would be third or fourth graders by now have rarely if ever been inside a classroom.

    data integrity in article-level metrics, PLOS Biology

  • data integrity in article-level metrics, PLOS Biology
    Interest in and use of article-level metrics (ALMs) has grown rapidly amongst the research community, by researchers, publishers, funders, and research institutions. As this happens, it is critical to ensure secure and reliable data that is trustworthy and can be used by all.

    why ebola is so dangerous, BBC

  • Ebola quarantine, Sierra Leone, BBC
  • mapping Ebola, BBC
  • Ebola basics, BBC
  • Ebola orphans, BBC
  • why Ebola is so dangerous, BBC
  • how Ebola changed the world, BBC
  • Piot discovers Ebola, 1976, BBC
  • Ebola virus disease, Wikipedia
    Ebola changed [Belgian scientist Peter] Piot's life ... following the discovery of the virus, he went on to research the Aids epidemic in Africa and became the founding executive director of the UNAIDS organisation. "It led me to do things I thought only happened in books. It gave me a mission in life to work on health in developing countries," he says. "It was not only the discovery of a virus but also of myself." Peter Piot, the discoverer of Ebola, is now the Director of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

    Google driverless car, Wikipedia

  • self driving cars, Google
  • report on self driving cars, Google
  • granny and duck both safe, The Verge
  • autonomous pod cars at Heathrow, BBC
  • Google driverless car, Wikipedia
  • self-driving trucks, Medium
    What if it could be easier and safer for everyone to get around?

    global burden of disease, Lancet

  • global burden of disease, Lancet
    For some causes of more than 100 000 deaths per year in 2013, age-standardised death rates increased between 1990 and 2013, including HIV/AIDS, pancreatic cancer, atrial fibrillation and flutter, drug use disorders, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and sickle-cell anaemias. Diarrhoeal diseases, lower respiratory infections, neonatal causes, and malaria are still in the top five causes of death in children younger than 5 years. The most important pathogens are rotavirus for diarrhoea and pneumococcus for lower respiratory infections.

    The Billion Prices Project @ MIT

  • The Billion Prices Project @ MIT
  • a billion prices, The New Yorker
  • gauging prices, Wall Street Journal
  • consumer price index, Wikipedia
    Economists Roberto Rigobon and Alberto Cavallo at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Sloan School of Management have come up with a method to scour the Internet for online prices on millions of items and then use them to calculate inflation statistics for a dozen countries on a daily basis.

    the legacy of Andy Kohut, Norm Ornstein, The Atlantic

  • the legacy of Andy Kohut, Norm Ornstein, The Atlantic [beautiful essay on polling integrity]
  • Andy Kohut, a rare Washington figure, EJ Dionne, Washington Post
  • Andy Kohut, connoisseur of public opinion, Adam Bernstein, Washington Post
  • Andrew Kohut, Pew Research Center
  • Andrew Kohut, Wikipedia
    There are good pollsters and good polling organizations out there, and a lot of smart and conscientious people in the profession. But no one, frankly, came close to Andy -- and no organization even begins to rival the Pew Research Center he built.

    college scorecard, US Department of Education

  • college scorecard, US Department of Education
  • college ranking system, New York Times
  • alumni earnings, New York Times
  • California's upward-mobility machine, New York Times
  • top colleges doing the most for low-income students, New York Times Sewanee is ranked 76th in this list.
    On average, college graduates earn $1 million more over their lifetimes than high school graduates.

    The Global Competitiveness Report, 2015-2016, World Economic Forum (page 360)

  • The Global Competitiveness Report, 2015-2016, World Economic Forum
  • global competitiveness index, New York Times
    [The Global Competitiveness Report, 2015-2016] ranks the U.S. third in global competitiveness, behind Switzerland and Singapore. Next is Germany, the Netherlands, Japan, Hong Kong, Finland, Sweden, the UK and then Canada.

    hurricane Joaquin's path, US weather forecasting, New York Times

  • US weather forecasting, New York Times
    Perhaps the biggest shortcoming [in US weather forecasting] is in data assimilation ... the process of taking all of the available data and building an initial description of the atmosphere. The model runs from that, but a perfect model of the wrong atmosphere will yield a wrong answer.

    Olivier Blanchard, by Steven Pearlstein, Washington Post

  • Olivier Blanchard, by Steven Pearlstein, Washington Post
  • Olivier Blanchard, by Paul Krugman, New York Times
  • A dialog with Olivier Blanchard and Paul Krugman, CUNY, New York Times
    The Blanchard era at the IMF was one of unprecedented data-driven analysis of policy problems, done with consummate skill.

    coal, Washington Post

  • coal, Washington Post
    Despite growing attention to cleaner energy, two-thirds of the world's electricity is still produced by burning fossil fuels, mostly coal - a proportion that hasn't budged for 35 years. ... Coal-burning power plants are the biggest polluters, [with] 72% of all fossil fuel emissions ... China, the United States and India ... accounted for nearly 50 percent of all fossil fuel emissions.

    hidden costs of drinking, Washington Post

  • hidden costs of drinking, Washington Post
  • national and state costs of excessive alcohol consumption, American Journal of Preventive Medicine
    ... collectively, our national drinking habit costs society $249 billion a year. That cost comes primarily from excessive drinking -- bingeing on four or more drinks per evening, or drinking heavily all week long. That total cost manifests itself primarily in things like early mortality due to alcohol ($75 billion of the total), lost productivity and absenteeism at work ($82 billion), health-care costs ($28 billion), crime ($25 billion) and car crashes ($13 billion).

    billion dollar weather disasters, Washington Post

  • billion dollar weather disasters, Washington Post
    Hurricane Katrina was the United States's most costly and destructive weather disaster in recent history.

    without health insurance, New York Times

  • without health insurance, New York Times
    Who still doesn't have health insurance? They tend to live in the South, and they tend to be poor.

    New York City marathon, New York Times

  • New York City marathon, New York Times
    50,000 runners, moving in waves

    US mortality rates, Paul Krugman, New York Times

  • US mortality rates, Paul Krugman, New York Times
  • rising morbidity and mortality (abstract), PNAS
  • rising morbidity and mortality (article), PNAS
    This paper documents a marked increase in the all-cause mortality of middle-aged white non-Hispanic men and women in the United States between 1999 and 2013. This change reversed decades of progress in mortality and was unique to the United States; no other rich country saw a similar turnaround. ... This increase for whites was largely accounted for by increasing death rates from drug and alcohol poisonings, suicide, and chronic liver diseases and cirrhosis.

    2015: the year in charts, New York Times

  • 2015: the year in charts, New York Times
    By the end of 2015, the economy -- still leaving too many Americans behind -- has regrettably almost disappeared from the news ... Here, for better or worse, is the state of the union in 10 charts.

    air pollution and cigarette equivalence, Berkeley Earth

  • air pollution and cigarette equivalence, Berkeley Earth
    Air Pollution kills more people worldwide each year than does AIDS, malaria, diabetes or tuberculosis. For the United States and Europe, air pollution is equivalent in detrimental health effects to smoking 0.4 to 1.6 cigarettes per day. In China the numbers are far worse; on bad days the health effects of air pollution are comparable to the harm done smoking three packs per day (60 cigarettes) by every man, woman, and child. Air pollution is arguably the greatest environmental catastrophe in the world today.

    Islam in the Middle East, New York Times

  • Islam in the Middle East, New York Times
    Sunni-led allies of Saudi Arabia have cut diplomatic ties with Shiite Iran, further polarizing the Middle East along the two major branches of Islam. But while almost all of the governments are controlled by one sect, the countries' populations are a mix of Sunnis and Shiites, including sub-sects and other branches, an important factor in the region's conflicts.

    Random sampling and random assignment




    cparrish@sewanee.edu